An Emerging Framework for the EdD Activist
Increasingly, Ed.D. programs are challenged to produce graduates with the skills and expertise needed to create and foster change in the various educational environments in which they serve. Promoting, and more importantly, preparing the Ed.D. Activist is a theme that was addressed during the October 2019 convening of the Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) hosted by the University of South Carolina. As part of the opening convening, the U of SC faculty assisted with surveying the more than 65 CPED-informed programs in an effort to construct a potential framework to guide both new and existing programs within the consortium. The resulting framework highlights two potential profiles for the Ed.D. Activist, 12 considerations that programs should examine, four primary outcomes, and five quality indicators. The framework is representative of the data collected from more than 200 participants and provides a broad, but foundational framework for engaging more deeply in the work of promoting activism amongst Ed.D. graduates.
Archbald, D. (2011). The emergence of the nontraditional doctorate: A historical overview. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 129(Spring), 7–19. https://doi.org/10.1002/ace
Becton, Y., Bogiages, C., Currin, E., D’Amico, L., Jeffries, R., Lilly, T., & Tamim, S. (2019, October 22). An emerging framework for the EdD activist [Conference session]. Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate, Columbia, SC, United States.
Berila, B. (2015). Integrating mindfulness into anti-oppression pedagogy: Social justice in higher education. New York, NY: Routledge.
Brooks, J. S., Normore, A. H., & Wilkinson, J. (2017). School leadership, social justice and immigration: Examining, exploring and extending two frameworks. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(5), 679-690.
Brown, A. E., & Stern, M. (2018). Teachers’ work as women’s work: Reflections on gender, activism, and solidarity in new teacher movements. Feminist Formations, 30(3), 172-197.
Buchanan, R. (2015). Teacher identity and agency in an era of accountability. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 21(6), 700-719.
Burridge, P., Carpenter, C., Cherednichenko, B., & Kruger, T. (2010). Investigating praxis inquiry within teacher education using Giddens’ structuration theory. Journal of Experiential Education, 33(1), 19-37.
Buss, R. R. (2018). How CPED guiding principles and design concepts influenced the development and implementation of an Ed.D. program. Impacting Education: Journal on Transforming Professional Practice, 3(2), 40–47. https://doi.org/10.5195/ie.2018.57
Cabrera, N. L., Matias, C. E., & Montoya, R. (2017, April 3). Activism or slacktivism? The potential and pitfalls of social media in contemporary student activism. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 10(4), 400-415.
Cianciarulo, M. S. (2015). Refugees in our midst: Applying international human rights law to the bullying of LGBTQ youth in the United States. Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 47, 55.
Cochran-Smith, M. (2010). Toward a theory of teacher education for social justice. In A. Hargreaves, A. Lieberman, M. Fullan, & D. Hopkins (Eds.), Second international handbook of educational change (pp. 445-467). Dordrecht, NL: Springer.
Coe, R., Waring, M., Hedges, L., & Arthur, L. (Eds). (2017). Reinventing grounded theory: Some questions about theory, ground and discovery (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Conway, J. M., Amel, E. L., & Gerwien, D. P. (2009). Teaching and learning in the social context: A meta-analysis of service learning’s effects on academic, personal, social, and citizenship outcomes. Teaching of Psychology, 36(4), 233–245. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986280903172969
Creighton, T. (2008). Logic models: Evaluating education doctorates in educational administration. International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 3(1), 1–11.
Doctor of Education – Curriculum Studies: What will I study? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/education/index.php.
Dulio, D. A., O’Brien, E. E., & Klemanski, J. S. (Eds.). (2008). Diversity in contemporary American politics and government. London, UK: Pearson College Division.
Dunn, A. H. (2016). “It’s dangerous to be a scholar-activist these days”: Becoming a teacher educator amidst the hydra of teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 43(4), 3-29.
Dunn, A. H. (2018). Leaving a profession after it’s left you: Teachers’ public resignation letters as resistance amidst neoliberalism. Teachers College Record, 120(9), 1-35.
Ezzani, M. D., & Paufler, N. A. (2018). Doctoral program in educational leadership redesign: Utilizing a multicriteria framework. Impacting Education: Journal on Transforming Professional Practice, 3(2), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.5195/ie.2018.70.
Giddens, A. (1979). Agency, structure. In Central problems in social theory (pp. 49-95). London, UK: Palgrave.
Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Giroux, H. A. (2015). Democracy in crisis, the specter of authoritarianism, and the future of higher education. Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs, 1(1), Article 7. Available at: https://ecommons.luc.edu/jcshesa/vol1/iss1/7.
Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough?: An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59-82.
Hale, J. (2012). The struggle begins early: Head Start and the Mississippi Freedom Movement. History of Education Quarterly, 52(4), 506-534.
Hawkes, D. (2016). Why do a professional doctorate? Evidence from prospective EdD students. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 8(2), 34–47.
Hoffman, L. (2009). Educational leadership and social activism: A call for action. Journal of Educational Leadership and History, 41(4), 391-410.
Inglehart, R. (2018). The age of insecurity: Can democracy save itself. Foreign Affairs, 97(3), 20-28.
Jacoby, B. (2017). The new student activism: Supporting students as agents of social change. Journal of College and Character, 18(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/2194587x.2016.1260479
Jaquette, J. S. (2017). Women at the top: Leadership, institutions and the quality of democracy. In V. Montecinos (Ed.), Women presidents and prime ministers in post-transition democracies (pp. 37-58). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jarrett, O., & Stenhouse, V. (2011). Problem solution project: Transforming curriculum and empowering urban students and teachers. Urban Education, 46(6), 1461-1495.
Jeffries, R. (Ed.). (2019). Diversity, equity, and inclusivity in contemporary higher education. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Kajner, T., Chovanec, D., Underwood, M., & Mian, A. (2013). Critical community service learning: Combining critical classroom pedagogy with activist community placements. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 19(2), 36–48.
Kennedy, B. L., Altman, M., & Pizano, A. (2018). Engaging in the battle of the snails by challenging the traditional dissertation model. Impacting Education: Journal on Transforming Professional Practice, 3(1), 4–12. https://doi.org/10.5195/ie.2018.27
Kezar, A., Acuña Avilez, A., Drivalas, Y., & Wheaton, M. M. (2017). Building social change oriented leadership capacity among student organizations: Developing students and campuses simultaneously. New Directions for Student Leadership, 155, 45-57.
King, J. E. (2015). A Black woman speaks on leadership. In Dysconscious racism, afrocentric praxis, and education for human freedom: Through the years I keep on toiling (pp. 36-43). New York, NY: Routledge.
Kinsella-Meier, M. A., & Gala, N. M. (2016). Collaboration: Definitions and explorations of an essential partnership. Odyssey: New Directions in Deaf Education, 17, 4-9.
Kluttz, J., & Walter, P. (2018). Conceptualizing learning in the climate justice movement. Adult Education Quarterly, 68(2), 91-107.
Krings, A., Austic, E.A., Gutierrez, L. M., & Dirksen, K.E. (2015). The comparative impacts of social justice educational methods on political participation, civic engagement, and multicultural activism. Equity and Excellence in Education, 48(3), 403-417.
Mack, G. (2015). Visionary leadership: Chartering a course through the storms. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 90(3), 10-11.
Marginson, S. (2016). The worldwide trend to high participation higher education: Dynamics of social stratification in inclusive systems, Higher Education, 72(4), 413-434, doi 10.1007/s10734-016-0016-x.
Mertler, C. A., & Henriksen, D. (2018). Creative and innovative solutions to accommodate the growth of a professional practice doctoral program. Impacting Education: Journal on Transforming Professional Practice, 3(1), 36–44. https://doi.org/10.5195/ie.2018.55
Montaño, T., Lopez-Torres, L., DeLissovoy, N., Pacheco, M., & Stillman, J. (2002). Teachers as activists: Teacher development and alternate sites of learning. Equity & Excellence in Education, 35(3), 265-275.
Morse, J., Stern, P., Corbin, J., Bowers, B., Charmaz, K. & Clarke, A. (2009). Developing grounded theory: The second generation. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press Inc.
Neumayer, C., & Svensson, J. (2016). Activism and radical politics in the digital age: Towards a typology. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 22(2), 131-146.
Noddings, N. (2004). Caring, 1981. In W.F. Pinar (Ed.). Contemporary curriculum discourses: Twenty years of JCT (pp. 42-55). New York: NY: Peter Lang. (Original work published 1999)
Normore, A. H., & Issa Lahera, A. (2019). The evolution of educational leadership preparation programmes. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 51(1), 27–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220620.2018.1513914
Oyler, C. J. (2017). Constructive resistance: Activist repertoires for teachers. Language Arts, 95(1), 30-39.
Patton, M.Q. (2007). Sampling, qualitative (purposive). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology.
Peterson, D. S. (2017). Preparing scholarly practitioners: Redesigning the EdD to reflect CPED principles. Impacting Education: Journal on Transforming Professional Practice, 2(1), 33–40. https://doi.org/10.5195/ie.2017.30
Picower, B. (2012). Teacher activism: Enacting a vision for social justice. Equity & Excellence in Education, 45(4), 561-574.
Reigeluth, C. M. (2019). Chaos theory and the sciences of complexity: Foundations for transforming educational systems. Learning, Design, and Technology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17727-4_95-1
Riley, K., & Solic, K. (2017). “Change happens beyond the comfort zone”: Bringing undergraduate teacher-candidates into activist teacher communities. Journal of Teacher Education, 68(2), 179-192.
Rodriguez, A., & Morrison, D. (2019). Expanding and enacting transformative meanings of equity, diversity and social justice in science education. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 14(2), 265-281.
Ryan, J., & Higginbottom, K. (2017). Politics, activism, and leadership for social justice in education. In D. Waite & I. Bogotch (Eds.), The Wiley International Handbook of Educational Leadership, (pp. 103-124) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
Schechter, M. (2019, May 6). 10,000 people marched. Where does the SC teacher movement go from here? The State. Retrieved from https://www.thestate.com/news/politics-government/article229939669.html
Shulman, L. S., Golde, C. M., Bueschel, A. C., Kristen, J., Shulman, L. S., Golde, C. M., … Garabedian, K. J. (2006). Reclaiming education’s doctorates: A critique and a proposal. Educational Researcher, 35(3), 25–32.
Spreen, C. A., Monaghan, C., & Hillary, A. (2018). From transforming human rights education to transformative human rights education: Context, critique, and change. In M. Zembylas & A. Keet (Eds.), Critical human rights, citizenship, and democracy education: Entanglements and regenerations (pp. 209-224). New York, NY: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Stenhouse, V., & Jarrett, O. (2012). In the service of learning and activism: Service learning, critical pedagogy, and the problem solution project. Teacher Education Quarterly, 39(1), 51–77.
Storey, V. A., & Maughan, B. D. (2014). Beyond a definition: Designing and specifying Dissertation in Practice (DiP) models. The Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate.
Stoskopf, A. (1999). An untold story of resistance: African-American educators and IQ testing in the 1920s and ’30s. Rethinking Schools, 14(1). Retrieved from https://www.rethinkingschools.org/articles/an-untold-story-of-resistance
Stout, J. (2010). Blessed are the organized: Grassroots democracy in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Strauss, A., & Glaser, B. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Company.
Taysum, A. (2006). The distinctiveness of the EdD within the university tradition. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 38(3), 323–334. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220620600984255
Theoharis, G. (2015). School leadership development requires LGBTQ content. Research and Support for Multicultural Education Course Requirements in Teacher Education in New York State, 42.
Thomas, G., & James, D. (2006). Reinventing grounded theory: Some questions about theory, ground, and discovery. British Educational Research, 32(6), 767-795.
Tupling, C. L., & Outhwaite, D. (2017). Developing an identity as an EdD leader: A reflexive narrative account. Management in Education, 31(4), 153–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/0892020617734819
Tural, E. (2017). Organizational transformations in community design centers: An analysis through Giddens’ theory of structuration framework. Journal of Community Practice, 25(2), 253-282.
Winkle-Wagner, R. & Locks, A.M. (2013). Diversity and inclusion on campus: Supporting racially and ethnically underrepresented students. New York: NY: Routledge.
Yang, G. (2016). Narrative agency in hashtag activism: The case of #BlackLivesMatter. Media and Communication, 4(4), 13-17. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v4i4.692.
Copyright (c) 2020 Yasha J. Becton, Chris Bogiages, Leigh D'Amico, Elizabeth Currin, Todd Lilly, Rhonda Jeffries, Suha Tamim
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.